Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND): An Alternative to PND

Richard I. Parker, Shanna Hagan-Burke, Kimberly Vannest

First Published February 1, 2007 Research Article

The two types of single-case research methods PND and PAND are evaluated as they relate to deficiencies in regression effect sizes. 


The PAND procedure is demonstrated and applied to 75 published multiple baseline designs to answer questions about typical effect sizes, relationships with PND and regression effect , statistical power, and time efficiency. 

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