Participants: 20 4th grade students
Intervention used: two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards
Design used: alternating ABAB design
Results: Rate of active student response during instruction was much higher with response cards than with hand raising. Most students scored higher on daily quizzes following sessions in which response cards were used than they did on quizzes that followed hand-raising sessions. Response cards were preferred over hand raising by 19 of the 20 students in the class.