Any instance during a conversation in which the listener demonstrates ongoing listening by engaging  in a combination of both non-verbal AND verbal behaviors throughout the entire time that the speaker is speaking.  Non-verbal behaviors include: smiling, making eye contact, keeping their eyes on the speaker, mirroring tone, energy, or gestures;, maintaining an open posture; Verbal behaviors include:  Statements of positive reinforcement, asking for clarification, questioning, restating/ summarizing what they said, questioning, and reflecting.  Non-verbal and verbal behaviors may change throughout the conversation, and not all behaviors have to occur for criteria to be met.