The participants in the study by Bolkan, Goodboy and Myers (2017) were 145 men and 217 women whose ages ranged from 18 to 51 years (M = 19.6). The intervention used was giving clear directions, the researchers examined how instructor clarity and nonverbal immediacy would influence students learning. The design used was a 2 × 2 equivalent groups factorial experimental design. Their results showed that both instructor clarity and immediacy continue to be important effective teaching behaviors and beneficial for student learning; the lack of instructor nonverbal immediacy was only slightly detrimental to student learning.

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